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Lexra did implement a 32-bit variant of the MIPS architecture. Noteworthy architectural feature was the lack of the MIPS I instructions lwl, lwr, swl and swr that optimize the handling of unaligned loads. Later the LX4580 core added hardware multithreading. Products implementing Lexra's architecture include the LX4080, LX4080P, LX4180, LX4280 and LX5280, LX8000. Today Lexra is a defunct company. Several key employees of Lexra founded the digital video core company Ultra Data Corporation, the intellectual property assets of which have since been acquired. Many other key Lexra employees, including co-founder and CEO, Charlie Cheng, now work for ASIC vendor Faraday Technology in Taiwan, Sunnyvale, CA, and Framingham, MA. Lexra co-founder and CTO Pat Hays is now vice president of engineering for MIPS Technologies, Inc. in Mountain View.

Jonah Probell has written a history of Lexra

Linux support

The instructions lwl, lwr, swl and swr are covered by US patent 4,814,976. Lexra therefore choose to implement these instructions by software emulation. In the 1999 - 2002 lawsuit of MIPS Technologies, Inc. vs. Lexra, Inc. about violation of this and a second patent, Lexra and MIPS reached an agreement and the court never ruled on the matter. Which means it isn't clear if Linux can or cannot legally emulate the instructions.

Instructions emulator sourcecode from Lexra exists as Linux MIPS kernel patches and available under GPL license.

Technically support for Lexra processors without adding emulation of these instructions would be possible but the question is how much sense it would make as some software may rely on it fairly heavily.

Following the lawsuit Lexra became a MIPS32 license. MIPS later acquired Lexra's IP. This resulted in the end of Lexra's former products and so at this time there also seems to be little interest in actually adding Linux support.

Realtek RTL8650/RTL8651

The RTL8650/RTL8651 is a highly integrated multi-layer switching gateway controller.

  • LX4180 32-bit RISC CPU, Embedded 4K I-Cache, 4K D-Cache, 8K I-RAM, 4K D-RAM
  • 6-port layer 2/3/4 switch MAC, 5 Fast Ethernet transceivers, and an MII interface
  • USB v1.1 host controller
  • 33MHz PCI v2.2 host interface for glueless connection of up to two devices (RTL8651 only)
  • PCMCIA or memory interface
  • Two 16C550-compatible UARTs
  • 22 GPIOs
  • 208-pin PQFP package for RTL8650; 292-pin TFBGA package for RTL8651


Realtek RTL8181

The Realtek RTL8181 is a highly integrated System-on-a-Chip with a high-performance 32-bit RISC microcontroller, two Ethernet MACs and a WLAN 802.11b controller embedded onto a single chip. RTL8181P BGA version has a PCI Bridge which supports one external PCI/MiniPCI device.

The embedded Lexra LX5280 32-bit RISC CPU runs at up to 200MHz and features separate 8KB instruction and data caches.

Devices are based on the RTL8181:


Most of the RTL8181-based devices comes with a simply bootloader and Linux as firmware. See a Minitar sourcecode and RTL8181-linux project. Seems, RTL8181 shares some code with ADM5120. Both they use CSYS header format and some applicatinos (i.e. setup), but RTL8181 firmware is Big-Endian.


RTL8181 supports JTAG and MIPS EJTAG 2.0:

  • ManufID: 6
  • PartNumber: 5280


Realtek RTL8186

The Realtek RTL8186 is a SoC with integrated MIPS core (Lexra LX5280), two UARTs, two Ethernet MACs, 4xPCM audio channels, IPSec crypto engine and a WLAN 802.11g controller.

Devices are based on the RTL8186:

  • D-Link DWL-G700AP
  • Edimax EW-7206APg
  • Minitar MNWAPG and MNWAPGA
  • OvisLink WL-5460AP, overview (Italian)
  • ZyXEL P-330W

Realtek RTL8180

Don't confuse the RTL8181 with the RTL8180. It's just plain WLAN chip, that also happens to be the one embedded on the RTL8181.

External links