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Re: Bug in Linux? fcr31 not being saved-restored

To: Carsten Langgaard <>
Subject: Re: Bug in Linux? fcr31 not being saved-restored
From: Jun Sun <>
Date: Thu, 20 Jun 2002 11:03:54 -0700
Cc: Louis Hamilton <>,,
References: <> <> <> <> <> <>
User-agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; U; Linux i686; en-US; rv: Gecko/20010901

I think this patch is OK.

Whatever your gcc test is, it seems like it should fail on all other archs too, because a new program would always inherit the old fpu registers. It would be interesting to do a test on those platforms.

I can see that having old values for general FPU registers is not a problem, but having the old value in FPU status register might. So an alternative is to clear fcr31 only in start_thread().

Note that without your patch, the secondary if (last_task_used_math != NULL) branch is never taken. This is because init process will be the only process that does not have used_math flag set and in that case last_task_use_math is indeed NULL. All other processes will inherit the used_math flag from its parent.


Carsten Langgaard wrote:

Jun Sun wrote:

Your first chunk is not clear as to where it applies.  Maybe you are using a
different code base.

Here is my do_cpu handler:

asmlinkage void do_cpu(struct pt_regs *regs)
        unsigned int cpid;
        extern void lazy_fpu_switch(void *);
        extern void save_fp(struct task_struct *);
        extern void init_fpu(void);
        void fpu_emulator_init_fpu(void);
        int sig;

        cpid = (regs->cp0_cause >> CAUSEB_CE) & 3;
        if (cpid != 1)
                goto bad_cid;

        if (!(mips_cpu.options & MIPS_CPU_FPU))
                goto fp_emul;

        regs->cp0_status |= ST0_CU1;
        if (last_task_used_math == current)

        if (current->used_math) {               /* Using the FPU again.  */
        } else {                                /* First time FPU user.  */
                if (last_task_used_math != NULL)
                        /* last_task_used_math loose fpu */
                        ((struct pt_regs *)(__KSTK_TOS(last_task_used_math) -
                                            sizeof(struct pt_regs)))->
                                cp0_status &= ~ST0_CU1;
                current->used_math = 1;
        last_task_used_math = current;


        if (last_task_used_math != current) {
                if (!current->used_math) {
                        current->used_math = 1;
        sig = fpu_emulator_cop1Handler(0, regs, &current->thread.fpu.soft);
        last_task_used_math = current;
        if (sig)
                 * Return EPC is not calculated in the FPU emulator, if
                 * a signal is being send. So we calculate it here.
                force_sig(sig, current);

        switch (mips_cpu.cputype) {
        case CPU_TX3927:
        case CPU_TX39XX:
        force_sig(SIGILL, current);

The second chunck is not necessary.  Although the FPU values in thread struct
for the new thread are stale, the new program cannot assume the fpu register
values and cannot use them without initialization anyway.

At least with the do_cpu handler above, you need this.
I'm not sure which tests failed without this, but I think it was some of the 
gcc selftests
and I think the problem was, that a thread inherited the previous thread's fsr 
point status register).

I don't see such a code in x86's code.  Current call to start_thread() is ok
with or without this change.  I am afraid future use of start_thread() may
give undesired effect after we make this change.

Why ?

As for the new fpu context switch code, I wrote a experiemental patch after
much discussion with Ralf and Kevin.  It is at

I also did some performance study of this patch.  Did not get much feedbacks
when I asked last time. :-(


Carsten Langgaard wrote:

I believe this is the patch that solve the problem.
The lazy fpu stuff has cause so many problems, that we have decided (together
with Ralf) to get rid of it, and do the FPU context save and restore a little 
We now have a solution here locally and we are testing it at the moment.


Index: arch/mips/kernel/traps.c
RCS file: /cvs/linux/arch/mips/kernel/traps.c,v
retrieving revision
diff -u -r1.99.2.14 traps.c
--- arch/mips/kernel/traps.c    2002/05/28 06:33:13
+++ arch/mips/kernel/traps.c    2002/06/18 07:53:47
+               {
+                       __enable_fpu();
+                       /* last_task_used_math loose fpu */
+                       ((struct pt_regs *)(__KSTK_TOS(last_task_used_math) -
+                                           sizeof(struct pt_regs)))->
+                               cp0_status &= ~ST0_CU1;
+               }

Index: include/asm-mips/processor.h
RCS file: /cvs/linux/include/asm-mips/processor.h,v
retrieving revision
diff -u -r1.43.2.2 processor.h
--- include/asm-mips/processor.h        2002/05/28 06:11:56
+++ include/asm-mips/processor.h        2002/06/18 07:56:58
@@ -215,6 +215,7 @@
       regs->cp0_epc = new_pc;                                         \
       regs->regs[29] = new_sp;                                        \
       current->thread.current_ds = USER_DS;                           \
+       current->used_math = 0;                                         \
} while (0)

unsigned long get_wchan(struct task_struct *p);

Jun Sun wrote:

Carsten Langgaard wrote:

This is one of the bugs, among others, we have fixed.
I'm not sure, if Ralf have integrated the patches we send him yet.


Do you remember the cause and the fix?  It appears to me the first ctc1
instruction should trap into kernel and mark current process as fpu owner, and
should not cause fcr31 corruption.

Or somehow the ctc1 does not trap into kernel?



Louis Hamilton wrote:

We have a customer here testing a 2.4.16 mips kernel on an embedded
Linux RM7000/SR71000 based system who has written a test that they
believe has uncovered a bug in Linux.  The FPU control register appears
to not get saved and restored.  I've reproduced the problem described
below and find the results consistent with their description.  The
problem occurs on both the RM7000 and SR71000 cpus.

It looks like save_fp_context and restore_fp_context are not being
called since the kernel save-restore logic thinks the process is not
using floating point math.  If you do some fp math before calling the
test routine below, it seems to works fine.

Is this a known caveat?  A true bug?  Or a contorted corner case
unlikely to be seen under typical end-user usage (see customer's
last paragraph :-) ?   If true bug, recommended remedy?


Louis Hamilton

------ customer reports the following: ---------
We found a bug in Linux.  A ^C (control-C) typed into a shell (or a
running program, it doesn't matter), causes the FCR (floating-point
control register) to be corrupted in another, unrelated process.  This
is repeatable behavior.

This can be reproduced with the following short assembly language
program that loops forever, waiting for the FCR to change.

     .align 2
     .globl mips_float_debug_loop
     li      $9, 0xF000F02F
     ctc1    $9, $31         # set FCR to some non-zero value
1:      cfc1    $8, $31         # get FCR
     beq     $8, $9, 1b      # spin, waiting for FCR to change
     or      $2, $0, $8
     jr    $31

You can call this function from a short C program and the return value
is the (corrupted) FCR, which turns out to alwyas be: 0x00000002.

Run the above loop in one window (connected to the board using telnet)
and then in another window (connected to the same board) type ^C.

I'm surprised this bug hasn't been encountered by other MIPS vendors.


_    _ ____  ___   Carsten Langgaard
|\  /|||___)(___   MIPS Denmark        Direct: +45 4486 5527
| \/ |||    ____)  Lautrupvang 4B      Switch: +45 4486 5555
TECHNOLOGIES     2750 Ballerup       Fax...: +45 4486 5556

_    _ ____  ___   Carsten Langgaard
|\  /|||___)(___   MIPS Denmark        Direct: +45 4486 5527
| \/ |||    ____)  Lautrupvang 4B      Switch: +45 4486 5555
 TECHNOLOGIES     2750 Ballerup       Fax...: +45 4486 5556

_    _ ____  ___   Carsten Langgaard
|\  /|||___)(___   MIPS Denmark        Direct: +45 4486 5527
| \/ |||    ____)  Lautrupvang 4B      Switch: +45 4486 5555
  TECHNOLOGIES     2750 Ballerup       Fax...: +45 4486 5556

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