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[PATCH v8 1/1] man-pages: seccomp.2: document syscall

To: "Michael Kerrisk (man-pages)" <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
Subject: [PATCH v8 1/1] man-pages: seccomp.2: document syscall
From: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
Date: Tue, 24 Jun 2014 13:56:15 -0700
Cc: Oleg Nesterov <oleg@redhat.com>, Andy Lutomirski <luto@amacapital.net>, Alexei Starovoitov <ast@plumgrid.com>, Andrew Morton <akpm@linux-foundation.org>, Daniel Borkmann <dborkman@redhat.com>, Will Drewry <wad@chromium.org>, Julien Tinnes <jln@chromium.org>, David Drysdale <drysdale@google.com>, linux-api@vger.kernel.org, linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, x86@kernel.org, linux-arm-kernel@lists.infradead.org, linux-mips@linux-mips.org, linux-arch@vger.kernel.org, linux-security-module@vger.kernel.org, keescook@chromium.org
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Organization: Outflux
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Combines documentation from prctl, in-kernel seccomp_filter.txt and
dropper.c, along with details specific to the new syscall.

Signed-off-by: Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
---
v3:
 - change args to void * (luto)
 - small typo cleanups
v2:
 - add full example code, based on "dropper.c" in samples/seccomp/
---
 man2/seccomp.2 |  400 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 1 file changed, 400 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 man2/seccomp.2

diff --git a/man2/seccomp.2 b/man2/seccomp.2
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f64950f
--- /dev/null
+++ b/man2/seccomp.2
@@ -0,0 +1,400 @@
+.\" Copyright (C) 2014 Kees Cook <keescook@chromium.org>
+.\" and Copyright (C) 2012 Will Drewry <wad@chromium.org>
+.\" and Copyright (C) 2008 Michael Kerrisk <mtk.manpages@gmail.com>
+.\"
+.\" %%%LICENSE_START(VERBATIM)
+.\" Permission is granted to make and distribute verbatim copies of this
+.\" manual provided the copyright notice and this permission notice are
+.\" preserved on all copies.
+.\"
+.\" Permission is granted to copy and distribute modified versions of this
+.\" manual under the conditions for verbatim copying, provided that the
+.\" entire resulting derived work is distributed under the terms of a
+.\" permission notice identical to this one.
+.\"
+.\" Since the Linux kernel and libraries are constantly changing, this
+.\" manual page may be incorrect or out-of-date.  The author(s) assume no
+.\" responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from
+.\" the use of the information contained herein.  The author(s) may not
+.\" have taken the same level of care in the production of this manual,
+.\" which is licensed free of charge, as they might when working
+.\" professionally.
+.\"
+.\" Formatted or processed versions of this manual, if unaccompanied by
+.\" the source, must acknowledge the copyright and authors of this work.
+.\" %%%LICENSE_END
+.\"
+.TH SECCOMP 2 2014-06-23 "Linux" "Linux Programmer's Manual"
+.SH NAME
+seccomp \-
+operate on Secure Computing state of the process
+.SH SYNOPSIS
+.nf
+.B #include <linux/seccomp.h>
+.B #include <linux/filter.h>
+.B #include <linux/audit.h>
+.B #include <linux/signal.h>
+.B #include <sys/ptrace.h>
+
+.BI "int seccomp(unsigned int " operation ", unsigned int " flags ,
+.BI "            void *" args );
+.fi
+.SH DESCRIPTION
+The
+.BR seccomp ()
+system call operates on the Secure Computing (seccomp) state of the
+current process.
+
+Currently, Linux supports the following
+.IR operation
+values:
+.TP
+.BR SECCOMP_SET_MODE_STRICT
+Only system calls that the thread is permitted to make are
+.BR read (2),
+.BR write (2),
+.BR _exit (2),
+and
+.BR sigreturn (2).
+Other system calls result in the delivery of a
+.BR SIGKILL
+signal. Strict secure computing mode is useful for number-crunching
+applications that may need to execute untrusted byte code, perhaps
+obtained by reading from a pipe or socket.
+
+This operation is available only if the kernel is configured with
+.BR CONFIG_SECCOMP
+enabled.
+
+The value of
+.IR flags
+must be 0, and
+.IR args
+must be NULL.
+
+This operation is functionally identical to calling
+.IR "prctl(PR_SET_SECCOMP,\ SECCOMP_MODE_STRICT)" .
+.TP
+.BR SECCOMP_SET_MODE_FILTER
+The system calls allowed are defined by a pointer to a Berkeley Packet
+Filter (BPF) passed via
+.IR args .
+This argument is a pointer to
+.IR "struct\ sock_fprog" ;
+it can be designed to filter arbitrary system calls and system call
+arguments. If the filter is invalid, the call will fail, returning
+.BR EACCESS
+in
+.IR errno .
+
+If
+.BR fork (2),
+.BR clone (2),
+or
+.BR execve (2)
+are allowed by the filter, any child processes will be constrained to
+the same filters and system calls as the parent.
+
+Prior to using this operation, the process must call
+.IR "prctl(PR_SET_NO_NEW_PRIVS,\ 1)"
+or run with
+.BR CAP_SYS_ADMIN
+privileges in its namespace. If these are not true, the call will fail
+and return
+.BR EACCES
+in
+.IR errno .
+This requirement ensures that filter programs cannot be applied to child
+processes with greater privileges than the process that installed them.
+
+Additionally, if
+.BR prctl (2)
+or
+.BR seccomp (2)
+is allowed by the attached filter, additional filters may be layered on
+which will increase evaluation time, but allow for further reduction of
+the attack surface during execution of a process.
+
+This operation is available only if the kernel is configured with
+.BR CONFIG_SECCOMP_FILTER
+enabled.
+
+When
+.IR flags
+are 0, this operation is functionally identical to calling
+.IR "prctl(PR_SET_SECCOMP,\ SECCOMP_MODE_FILTER,\ args)" .
+
+The recognized
+.IR flags
+are:
+.RS
+.TP
+.BR SECCOMP_FILTER_FLAG_TSYNC
+When adding a new filter, synchronize all other threads of the current
+process to the same seccomp filter tree. If any thread cannot do this,
+the call will not attach the new seccomp filter, and will fail returning
+the first thread ID found that cannot synchronize.  Synchronization will
+fail if another thread is in
+.BR SECCOMP_MODE_STRICT
+or if it has attached new seccomp filters to itself, diverging from the
+calling thread's filter tree.
+.RE
+.SH FILTERS
+When adding filters via
+.BR SECCOMP_SET_MODE_FILTER ,
+.IR args
+points to a filter program:
+
+.in +4n
+.nf
+struct sock_fprog {
+    unsigned short      len;    /* Number of BPF instructions */
+    struct sock_filter *filter;
+};
+.fi
+.in
+
+Each program must contain one or more BPF instructions:
+
+.in +4n
+.nf
+struct sock_filter {    /* Filter block */
+    __u16   code;       /* Actual filter code */
+    __u8    jt;         /* Jump true */
+    __u8    jf;         /* Jump false */
+    __u32   k;          /* Generic multiuse field */
+};
+.fi
+.in
+
+When executing the instructions, the BPF program executes over the
+syscall information made available via:
+
+.in +4n
+.nf
+struct seccomp_data {
+    int nr;                     /* system call number */
+    __u32 arch;                 /* AUDIT_ARCH_* value */
+    __u64 instruction_pointer;  /* CPU instruction pointer */
+    __u64 args[6];              /* up to 6 system call arguments */
+};
+.fi
+.in
+
+A seccomp filter may return any of the following values. If multiple
+filters exist, the return value for the evaluation of a given system
+call will always use the highest precedent value. (For example,
+.BR SECCOMP_RET_KILL
+will always take precedence.)
+
+In precedence order, they are:
+.TP
+.BR SECCOMP_RET_KILL
+Results in the task exiting immediately without executing the
+system call.  The exit status of the task (status & 0x7f) will
+be
+.BR SIGSYS ,
+not
+.BR SIGKILL .
+.TP
+.BR SECCOMP_RET_TRAP
+Results in the kernel sending a
+.BR SIGSYS
+signal to the triggering task without executing the system call.
+.IR siginfo\->si_call_addr
+will show the address of the system call instruction, and
+.IR siginfo\->si_syscall
+and
+.IR siginfo\->si_arch
+will indicate which syscall was attempted.  The program counter will be
+as though the syscall happened (i.e. it will not point to the syscall
+instruction).  The return value register will contain an arch\-dependent
+value; if resuming execution, set it to something sensible.
+(The architecture dependency is because replacing it with
+.BR ENOSYS
+could overwrite some useful information.)
+
+The
+.BR SECCOMP_RET_DATA
+portion of the return value will be passed as
+.IR si_errno .
+
+.BR SIGSYS
+triggered by seccomp will have a
+.IR si_code
+of
+.BR SYS_SECCOMP .
+.TP
+.BR SECCOMP_RET_ERRNO
+Results in the lower 16-bits of the return value being passed
+to userland as the
+.IR errno
+without executing the system call.
+.TP
+.BR SECCOMP_RET_TRACE
+When returned, this value will cause the kernel to attempt to
+notify a ptrace()-based tracer prior to executing the system
+call.  If there is no tracer present,
+.BR ENOSYS
+is returned to userland and the system call is not executed.
+
+A tracer will be notified if it requests
+.BR PTRACE_O_TRACESECCOMP
+using
+.IR ptrace(PTRACE_SETOPTIONS) .
+The tracer will be notified of a
+.BR PTRACE_EVENT_SECCOMP
+and the
+.BR SECCOMP_RET_DATA
+portion of the BPF program return value will be available to the tracer
+via
+.BR PTRACE_GETEVENTMSG .
+
+The tracer can skip the system call by changing the syscall number
+to \-1.  Alternatively, the tracer can change the system call
+requested by changing the system call to a valid syscall number.  If
+the tracer asks to skip the system call, then the system call will
+appear to return the value that the tracer puts in the return value
+register.
+
+The seccomp check will not be run again after the tracer is
+notified.  (This means that seccomp-based sandboxes MUST NOT
+allow use of ptrace, even of other sandboxed processes, without
+extreme care; ptracers can use this mechanism to escape.)
+.TP
+.BR SECCOMP_RET_ALLOW
+Results in the system call being executed.
+
+If multiple filters exist, the return value for the evaluation of a
+given system call will always use the highest precedent value.
+
+Precedence is only determined using the
+.BR SECCOMP_RET_ACTION
+mask.  When multiple filters return values of the same precedence,
+only the
+.BR SECCOMP_RET_DATA
+from the most recently installed filter will be returned.
+.SH RETURN VALUE
+On success,
+.BR seccomp ()
+returns 0.
+On error, if
+.BR SECCOMP_FILTER_FLAG_TSYNC
+was used, the return value is the thread ID that caused the
+synchronization failure. On other errors, \-1 is returned, and
+.IR errno
+is set to indicate the cause of the error.
+.SH ERRORS
+.BR seccomp ()
+can fail for the following reasons:
+.TP
+.BR EACCESS
+the caller did not have the
+.BR CAP_SYS_ADMIN
+capability, or had not set
+.IR no_new_privs
+before using
+.BR SECCOMP_SET_MODE_FILTER .
+.TP
+.BR EFAULT
+.IR args
+was required to be a valid address.
+.TP
+.BR EINVAL
+.IR operation
+is unknown; or
+.IR flags
+are invalid for the given
+.IR operation
+.TP
+.BR ESRCH
+Another thread caused a failure during thread sync, but its ID could not
+be determined.
+.SH VERSIONS
+This system call first appeared in Linux 3.16.
+.\" FIXME Add glibc version
+.SH CONFORMING TO
+This system call is a nonstandard Linux extension.
+.SH NOTES
+.BR seccomp ()
+provides a superset of the functionality provided by
+.IR PR_SET_SECCOMP
+of
+.BR prctl (2) .
+(Which does not support
+.IR flags .)
+.SH EXAMPLE
+.nf
+#include <errno.h>
+#include <stddef.h>
+#include <stdio.h>
+#include <stdlib.h>
+#include <unistd.h>
+#include <linux/audit.h>
+#include <linux/filter.h>
+#include <linux/seccomp.h>
+#include <sys/prctl.h>
+
+static int install_filter(int syscall, int arch, int error)
+{
+    struct sock_filter filter[] = {
+        /* Load architecture. */
+        BPF_STMT(BPF_LD+BPF_W+BPF_ABS,
+                 (offsetof(struct seccomp_data, arch))),
+        /* Jump forward 4 instructions on architecture mismatch. */
+        BPF_JUMP(BPF_JMP+BPF_JEQ+BPF_K, arch, 0, 4),
+        /* Load syscall number. */
+        BPF_STMT(BPF_LD+BPF_W+BPF_ABS,
+                 (offsetof(struct seccomp_data, nr))),
+        /* Jump forward 1 instruction on syscall mismatch. */
+        BPF_JUMP(BPF_JMP+BPF_JEQ+BPF_K, syscall, 0, 1),
+        /* Matching arch and syscall: return specific errno. */
+        BPF_STMT(BPF_RET+BPF_K,
+                 SECCOMP_RET_ERRNO|(error & SECCOMP_RET_DATA)),
+        /* Destination of syscall mismatch: Allow other syscalls. */
+        BPF_STMT(BPF_RET+BPF_K, SECCOMP_RET_ALLOW),
+        /* Destination of arch mismatch: Kill process. */
+        BPF_STMT(BPF_RET+BPF_K, SECCOMP_RET_KILL),
+    };
+    struct sock_fprog prog = {
+        .len = (unsigned short)(sizeof(filter)/sizeof(filter[0])),
+        .filter = filter,
+    };
+    if (seccomp(SECCOMP_SET_MODE_FILTER, 0, &prog)) {
+        perror("seccomp");
+        return EXIT_FAILURE;
+    }
+    return EXIT_SUCCESS;
+}
+
+int main(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+    if (argc < 5) {
+        fprintf(stderr, "Usage:\\n"
+                "refuse <syscall_nr> <arch> <errno> <prog> [<args>]\\n"
+                "Hint:  AUDIT_ARCH_I386: 0x%X\\n"
+                "       AUDIT_ARCH_X86_64: 0x%X\\n"
+                "\\n", AUDIT_ARCH_I386, AUDIT_ARCH_X86_64);
+        return EXIT_FAILURE;
+    }
+    if (prctl(PR_SET_NO_NEW_PRIVS, 1, 0, 0, 0)) {
+        perror("prctl");
+        return EXIT_FAILURE;
+    }
+    if (install_filter(strtol(argv[1], NULL, 0),
+                       strtol(argv[2], NULL, 0),
+                       strtol(argv[3], NULL, 0)))
+        return EXIT_FAILURE;
+    execv(argv[4], &argv[4]);
+    perror("execv");
+    return EXIT_FAILURE;
+}
+.fi
+.SH SEE ALSO
+.ad l
+.nh
+.BR prctl (2),
+.BR ptrace (2),
+.BR signal (7),
+.BR socket (7)
+.ad
-- 
1.7.9.5



-- 
Kees Cook                                            @outflux.net

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