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[PATCH] MIPS: Add option to pass return address location to _mcount. Wa

To: rdsandiford@googlemail.com, GCC Patches <gcc-patches@gcc.gnu.org>
Subject: [PATCH] MIPS: Add option to pass return address location to _mcount. Was: [PATCH -v4 4/9] tracing: add static function tracer support for MIPS
From: David Daney <ddaney@caviumnetworks.com>
Date: Fri, 23 Oct 2009 15:48:13 -0700
Cc: wuzhangjin@gmail.com, Adam Nemet <anemet@caviumnetworks.com>, rostedt@goodmis.org, linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, linux-mips@linux-mips.org, Thomas Gleixner <tglx@linutronix.de>, Ralf Baechle <ralf@linux-mips.org>, Nicholas Mc Guire <der.herr@hofr.at>
In-reply-to: <87y6n36plp.fsf@firetop.home>
Original-recipient: rfc822;linux-mips@linux-mips.org
References: <028867b99ec532b84963a35e7d552becc783cafc.1256135456.git.wuzhangjin@gmail.com> <2f73eae542c47ac5bbb9f7280e6c0271d193e90d.1256135456.git.wuzhangjin@gmail.com> <3f0d3515f74a58f4cfd11e61b62a129fdc21e3a7.1256135456.git.wuzhangjin@gmail.com> <ea8aa927fbd184b54941e4c2ae0be8ea0b4f6b8a.1256135456.git.wuzhangjin@gmail.com> <1256138686.18347.3039.camel@gandalf.stny.rr.com> <1256233679.23653.7.camel@falcon> <4AE0A5BE.8000601@caviumnetworks.com> <87y6n36plp.fsf@firetop.home>
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Richard Sandiford wrote:
David Daney <ddaney@caviumnetworks.com> writes:
Wu Zhangjin wrote:
On Wed, 2009-10-21 at 11:24 -0400, Steven Rostedt wrote:
[...]
+
+NESTED(_mcount, PT_SIZE, ra)
+       RESTORE_SP_FOR_32BIT
+       PTR_LA  t0, ftrace_stub
+       PTR_L   t1, ftrace_trace_function /* please don't use t1 later, safe? */
Is t0 and t1 safe for mcount to use? Remember, mcount does not follow
the dynamics of C function ABI.
So, perhaps we can use the saved registers(a0,a1...) instead.

a0..a7 may not always be saved.

You can use at, v0, v1 and all the temporary registers. Note that for the 64-bit ABIs sometimes the names t0-t4 shadow a4-a7. So for a 64-bit kernel, you can use: $1, $2, $3, $12, $13, $14, $15, $24, $25, noting that at == $1 and contains the callers ra. For a 32-bit kernel you can add $8, $9, $10, and $11

This whole thing seems a little fragile.

I think it might be a good idea to get input from Richard Sandiford, and/or Adam Nemet about this approach (so I add them to the CC).

This e-mail thread starts here:

http://www.linux-mips.org/archives/linux-mips/2009-10/msg00286.html

and here:

http://www.linux-mips.org/archives/linux-mips/2009-10/msg00290.html

I'm not sure that the "search for a save of RA" thing is really a good idea.
The last version of that seemed to be "assume that any register stores
will be in a block that immediately precedes the move into RA", but even
if that's true now, it might not be in future.  And as Wu Zhangjin says,
it doesn't cope with long calls, where the target address is loaded
into a temporary register before the call.

FWIW, I'd certainly be happy to make GCC pass an additional parameter
to _mcount.  The parameter could give the address of the return slot,
or null for leaf functions.  In almost all cases[*], there would be
no overhead, since the move would go in the delay slot of the call.

[*] Meaning when the frame is <=32k. ;)  I'm guessing you never
    get anywhere near that, and if you did, the scan thing wouldn't
    work anyway.

The new behaviour could be controlled by a command-line option,
which would also give linux a cheap way of checking whether the
feature is available.


How about this patch, I think it does what you suggest.

When we pass -pg -mmcount-raloc, the address of the return address relative to sp is passed in $12 to _mcount. If the return address is not saved, $12 will be zero. I think this will work as registers are never saved with an offset of zero. $12 is a temporary register that is not part of the ABI.

$12 is also used by libffi closure support, but I think its use there will not interfere with _mcount.

It is very lightly tested, I would bootstrap and regression test with some new test cases if it were deemed acceptable.

2009-10-23  David Daney  <ddaney@caviumnetworks.com>

        * doc/invoke.texi (mmcount-raloc): Document new command line option.
        * config/mips/mips.opt (config/mips/mips.opt): New option.
        * config/mips/mips-protos.h (mips_function_profiler): Declare new
        function.
        * config/mips/mips.c (struct mips_frame_info): Add ra_fp_offset member.
        (mips_for_each_saved_gpr_and_fpr): Set ra_fp_offset.
        (mips_raloc_in_delay_slot_p): New function.
        (mips_function_profiler): Moved from FUNCTION_PROFILER, and rewritten.
        * config/mips/mips.h (FUNCTION_PROFILER): Body of macro moved to
        mips_function_profiler.

Index: gcc/doc/invoke.texi
===================================================================
--- gcc/doc/invoke.texi (revision 153502)
+++ gcc/doc/invoke.texi (working copy)
@@ -709,7 +709,7 @@ Objective-C and Objective-C++ Dialects}.
 -mbranch-cost=@var{num}  -mbranch-likely  -mno-branch-likely @gol
 -mfp-exceptions -mno-fp-exceptions @gol
 -mvr4130-align -mno-vr4130-align -msynci -mno-synci @gol
--mrelax-pic-calls -mno-relax-pic-calls}
+-mrelax-pic-calls -mno-relax-pic-calls -mmcount-raloc}
 
 @emph{MMIX Options}
 @gccoptlist{-mlibfuncs  -mno-libfuncs  -mepsilon  -mno-epsilon  -mabi=gnu @gol
@@ -14192,6 +14192,20 @@ an assembler and a linker that supports 
 directive and @code{-mexplicit-relocs} is in effect.  With
 @code{-mno-explicit-relocs}, this optimization can be performed by the
 assembler and the linker alone without help from the compiler.
+
+@item -mmcount-raloc
+@itemx -mno-mcount-raloc
+@opindex mmcount-raloc
+@opindex mno-mcount-raloc
+Emit (do not emit) code to pass the offset (from the stack pointer) of
+the return address save location to @code{_mcount}.  The default is
+@option{-mno-mcount-raloc}.
+
+@option{-mmcount-raloc} can be used in conjunction with @option{-pg}
+and a specially coded @code{_mcount} function to record function exit
+by replacing the return address on the stack with a pointer to the
+function exit profiling function.
+
 @end table
 
 @node MMIX Options
Index: gcc/config/mips/mips.opt
===================================================================
--- gcc/config/mips/mips.opt    (revision 153502)
+++ gcc/config/mips/mips.opt    (working copy)
@@ -208,6 +208,10 @@ mlong64
 Target Report RejectNegative Mask(LONG64)
 Use a 64-bit long type
 
+mmcount-raloc
+Target Report Var(TARGET_RALOC)
+Pass the offset from sp of the ra save location to _mcount in $12
+
 mmemcpy
 Target Report Mask(MEMCPY)
 Don't optimize block moves
Index: gcc/config/mips/mips-protos.h
===================================================================
--- gcc/config/mips/mips-protos.h       (revision 153502)
+++ gcc/config/mips/mips-protos.h       (working copy)
@@ -344,5 +344,6 @@ extern bool mips_eh_uses (unsigned int);
 extern bool mips_epilogue_uses (unsigned int);
 extern void mips_final_prescan_insn (rtx, rtx *, int);
 extern int mips_trampoline_code_size (void);
+extern void mips_function_profiler (FILE *);
 
 #endif /* ! GCC_MIPS_PROTOS_H */
Index: gcc/config/mips/mips.c
===================================================================
--- gcc/config/mips/mips.c      (revision 153502)
+++ gcc/config/mips/mips.c      (working copy)
@@ -319,6 +319,9 @@ struct GTY(())  mips_frame_info {
   HOST_WIDE_INT acc_sp_offset;
   HOST_WIDE_INT cop0_sp_offset;
 
+  /* Similar, but the value passed to _mcount.  */
+  HOST_WIDE_INT ra_fp_offset;
+
   /* The offset of arg_pointer_rtx from the bottom of the frame.  */
   HOST_WIDE_INT arg_pointer_offset;
 
@@ -9616,6 +9619,9 @@ mips_for_each_saved_gpr_and_fpr (HOST_WI
   for (regno = GP_REG_LAST; regno >= GP_REG_FIRST; regno--)
     if (BITSET_P (cfun->machine->frame.mask, regno - GP_REG_FIRST))
       {
+       /* Record the ra offset for use by mips_function_profiler.  */
+       if (regno == RETURN_ADDR_REGNUM)
+         cfun->machine->frame.ra_fp_offset = offset + sp_offset;
        mips_save_restore_reg (word_mode, regno, offset, fn);
        offset -= UNITS_PER_WORD;
       }
@@ -16088,6 +16094,86 @@ mips_trampoline_init (rtx m_tramp, tree 
   emit_insn (gen_add3_insn (end_addr, addr, GEN_INT (TRAMPOLINE_SIZE)));
   emit_insn (gen_clear_cache (addr, end_addr));
 }
+
+/* Return true if the loading of $12 can be done in the jal/jalr delay
+   slot.  We can do this only if the jal will expand to a single
+   instruction and only a single instruction is required to load the
+   value to $12.  */
+
+static bool mips_raloc_in_delay_slot_p(void)
+{
+  return (SMALL_OPERAND_UNSIGNED(cfun->machine->frame.ra_fp_offset)
+         && !TARGET_USE_GOT);
+}
+
+/* Implement FUNCTION_PROFILER.  */
+
+void mips_function_profiler (FILE *file)
+{
+  int emit_small_ra_offset;
+
+  emit_small_ra_offset = 0;
+
+  if (TARGET_MIPS16)
+    sorry ("mips16 function profiling");
+  if (TARGET_LONG_CALLS)
+    {
+      /*  For TARGET_LONG_CALLS use $3 for the address of _mcount.  */
+      if (Pmode == DImode)
+       fprintf (file, "\tdla\t%s,_mcount\n", reg_names[3]);
+      else
+       fprintf (file, "\tla\t%s,_mcount\n", reg_names[3]);
+    }
+  if (TARGET_RALOC)
+    {
+      /* If TARGET_RALOC load $12 with the offset of the ra save
+        location.  */
+      if (mips_raloc_in_delay_slot_p())
+       emit_small_ra_offset = 1;
+      else
+       {
+         if (Pmode == DImode)
+           fprintf (file, "\tdli\t%s,%d\t\t# offset of ra\n", reg_names[12],
+                    cfun->machine->frame.ra_fp_offset);
+         else
+           fprintf (file, "\tli\t%s,%d\t\t# offset of ra\n", reg_names[12],
+                    cfun->machine->frame.ra_fp_offset);
+       }
+    }
+  mips_push_asm_switch (&mips_noat);
+  fprintf (file, "\tmove\t%s,%s\t\t# save current return address\n",
+          reg_names[AT_REGNUM], reg_names[RETURN_ADDR_REGNUM]);
+  /* _mcount treats $2 as the static chain register.  */
+  if (cfun->static_chain_decl != NULL)
+    fprintf (file, "\tmove\t%s,%s\n", reg_names[2],
+            reg_names[STATIC_CHAIN_REGNUM]);
+  if (!TARGET_NEWABI)
+    {
+      fprintf (file,
+              "\t%s\t%s,%s,%d\t\t# _mcount pops 2 words from  stack\n",
+              TARGET_64BIT ? "dsubu" : "subu",
+              reg_names[STACK_POINTER_REGNUM],
+              reg_names[STACK_POINTER_REGNUM],
+              Pmode == DImode ? 16 : 8);
+    }
+  if (emit_small_ra_offset)
+    mips_push_asm_switch (&mips_noreorder);
+  if (TARGET_LONG_CALLS)
+    fprintf (file, "\tjalr\t%s\n", reg_names[3]);
+  else
+    fprintf (file, "\tjal\t_mcount\n");
+  if (emit_small_ra_offset)
+    {
+      fprintf (file, "\tori\t%s,%s,%d\t\t# offset of ra\n",
+              reg_names[12], reg_names[0], cfun->machine->frame.ra_fp_offset);
+      mips_pop_asm_switch (&mips_noreorder);
+    }
+  mips_pop_asm_switch (&mips_noat);
+  /* _mcount treats $2 as the static chain register.  */
+  if (cfun->static_chain_decl != NULL)
+    fprintf (file, "\tmove\t%s,%s\n", reg_names[STATIC_CHAIN_REGNUM],
+            reg_names[2]);
+}
 
 /* Initialize the GCC target structure.  */
 #undef TARGET_ASM_ALIGNED_HI_OP
Index: gcc/config/mips/mips.h
===================================================================
--- gcc/config/mips/mips.h      (revision 153502)
+++ gcc/config/mips/mips.h      (working copy)
@@ -2372,44 +2372,7 @@ typedef struct mips_args {
 /* Output assembler code to FILE to increment profiler label # LABELNO
    for profiling a function entry.  */
 
-#define FUNCTION_PROFILER(FILE, LABELNO)                               \
-{                                                                      \
-  if (TARGET_MIPS16)                                                   \
-    sorry ("mips16 function profiling");                               \
-  if (TARGET_LONG_CALLS)                                               \
-    {                                                                  \
-      /*  For TARGET_LONG_CALLS use $3 for the address of _mcount.  */ \
-      if (Pmode == DImode)                                             \
-       fprintf (FILE, "\tdla\t%s,_mcount\n", reg_names[GP_REG_FIRST + 3]); \
-      else                                                             \
-       fprintf (FILE, "\tla\t%s,_mcount\n", reg_names[GP_REG_FIRST + 3]); \
-    }                                                                  \
-  mips_push_asm_switch (&mips_noat);                                   \
-  fprintf (FILE, "\tmove\t%s,%s\t\t# save current return address\n",   \
-          reg_names[AT_REGNUM], reg_names[RETURN_ADDR_REGNUM]);        \
-  /* _mcount treats $2 as the static chain register.  */               \
-  if (cfun->static_chain_decl != NULL)                                 \
-    fprintf (FILE, "\tmove\t%s,%s\n", reg_names[2],                    \
-            reg_names[STATIC_CHAIN_REGNUM]);                           \
-  if (!TARGET_NEWABI)                                                  \
-    {                                                                  \
-      fprintf (FILE,                                                   \
-              "\t%s\t%s,%s,%d\t\t# _mcount pops 2 words from  stack\n", \
-              TARGET_64BIT ? "dsubu" : "subu",                         \
-              reg_names[STACK_POINTER_REGNUM],                         \
-              reg_names[STACK_POINTER_REGNUM],                         \
-              Pmode == DImode ? 16 : 8);                               \
-    }                                                                  \
-  if (TARGET_LONG_CALLS)                                               \
-    fprintf (FILE, "\tjalr\t%s\n", reg_names[GP_REG_FIRST + 3]);       \
-  else                                                                 \
-    fprintf (FILE, "\tjal\t_mcount\n");                                        
\
-  mips_pop_asm_switch (&mips_noat);                                    \
-  /* _mcount treats $2 as the static chain register.  */               \
-  if (cfun->static_chain_decl != NULL)                                 \
-    fprintf (FILE, "\tmove\t%s,%s\n", reg_names[STATIC_CHAIN_REGNUM],  \
-            reg_names[2]);                                             \
-}
+#define FUNCTION_PROFILER(FILE, LABELNO) mips_function_profiler ((FILE))
 
 /* The profiler preserves all interesting registers, including $31.  */
 #define MIPS_SAVE_REG_FOR_PROFILING_P(REGNO) false
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