On Tue, Jul 11, 2000 at 09:58:47PM +0900, Hiroo HAYASHI wrote:
> In MIPS architecture, is the result of 0x80000000/-1 undefined?
> The operands of DIV instruction 32bit signed int.
> 0x7fff_ffff = 2,147,483,647 (INT_MAX)
> 0x8000_0000 = -2,147,483,648 (INT_MIN)
> limits.h defines them as;
> > /* Minimum and maximum values a `signed int' can hold. */
> > # define INT_MIN (- INT_MAX - 1)
> > # define INT_MAX 2147483647
> 0x8000_0000 / 0xffff_ffff = -2,147,483,648 / -1 = 2,147,483,648 > INT_MAX
Worse - you're using signed numbers, so 2,147,483,648 is actually
-2,147,483,648 which is smaller than INT_MAX. The death trap in two's
> But the description of the DIV instruction of MIPS RISC Architecture
> (Kane and Heinrich) says;
> No overflow exception occurs under any circumstances, and the
> result of this operation is undefined when the divisor is zero.
Correct. Note that sometimes it's somewhat confusing which instructions
are macro instructions and which the pure machine instruction on MIPS.
In this particular case
> According to 'See MIPS Run', P.186, MIPS assembler expands a div
> instruction to an instruction sequence in which these condition are
> checked. Do all MIPS assemblers do this?
At least I don't know any exceptions. This is how the GNU assembler
expands div $2, $3, $4 when assembled with -O3 -mips4 --trap:
0: 0064001a div $zero,$v1,$a0
4: 00800034 teq $a0,$zero
8: 2401ffff li $at,-1
c: 14810002 bne $a0,$at,18
10: 3c018000 lui $at,0x8000
14: 00610034 teq $v1,$at
18: 00001012 mflo $v0
1c: 00000000 nop
As you see the code tries to handle the special cases division by zero
and division of 0x80000000 / -1. Also fairly bulky macro expansion - and
the MIPS I macro is even heavier. If you want to disable this you have to
use the div / divu / ddiv / ddivu instructions with $0 as the first
argument and do the mflo yourself.
Which reminds me that I intend to use --trap as an optimization since a
Compiling the default Origin kernel with and without --trap
text data bss dec hex filename
1276100 321624 204396 1802120 1b7f88 vmlinux
1274404 321624 204396 1800424 1b78e8 vmlinux.trap
Quite impressive difference for all most zero effort to implement ...